Abbelin, Peter (1843-1917): Priest, monsignor, and vicar general of the Milwaukee archdiocese; adherent of the German language and culture and the separateness of German Catholics.
Alemany, Joseph Sadoc, O.P. (1814-88):Bishop of Monterey, 1850-53 and first abp. of San Francisco (1853-84); labored in American missions in Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee; attended Vatican Council I and the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore.
Allen, Fred (1894-1956): Entertainer; after a successful stage career, moved to radio in 1932 and became best known for The Fred Allen Show and the Texaco Star Theater.
Allen, Gracie (d. 1964): Entertainer and wife of George Burns, with whom she had a long and successful career; enjoyed success on stage, radio, and in films; one of the most popular entertainers of her generation.
Allouez, Claude Jean: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Altham, John: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Amat, Thaddeus, C.M. (1811-78): Missionary bishop; born in Spain; bp. of Monterey, California, 1854-59 and bp. of Monterey-Los Angeles, 1859-78; founded the cathedral of St. Vibiana and directed the expansion of the Church in California.
Andreis, Felix de: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Anchieta, José de, Bl.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Aparicio, Sebastian, Bl.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Avery, Martha (1851-1929): Catholic lay writer and lecturer; one-time Socialist, convert to Catholicism in 1904; supported social reform and papal encyclical Rerum Novarum; founder of the Catholic Truth Guild.
Badin, Stephen T.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Baraga, Frederic: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Baker, Josephine (1906-75): African-American dancer and entertainer; worked her way out of poverty as a dancer in Philadelphia, Boston, and Harlem; moved to Paris in the 1920s; success allowed her to open Chez Josephine, her own nightclub, in 1926; French citizen in 1937; worked with the Red Cross and the French Resistance during World War II; granted the Croix de Guerre and Legion d’Honneur with the rosette of the Resistance; took part in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
Barry, John (1745-1803): Father of the U.S. Navy; born in Ireland; went to sea at a young age and eventually became a wealthy ship owner in the American colonies; supported the American Revolution and was made captain of the brig Lexington; the first American naval officer to engage the vaunted British Navy at sea; assisted the new republic in building a fleet.
Barry, Leonora (1849-1930): Lay leader of the Knights of Labor; helped pass the Pennsylvania Factory Inspection Act in 1889; supporter of the suffrage movement and prohibition.
Bauer, Benedicta (1803-65): German-born Dominican missionary sister; founded convents in Brooklyn, Ohio, Tennessee, and Green Bay, and began the Dominican motherhouse in Racine, Wisconsin.
Barrymore, Ethel (1879-1959): Actress and member of the famed Barrymore family; educated by the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur; enjoyed a brilliant career on stage and screen; won Academy Award for best Supporting Actress in 1944 for None But the Lonely Heart.
Benson, William (1891-1957): Admiral; graduated Naval Academy, 1877; served on various assignments and taught at the Academy, 1890-93; appointed commandant of the Philadelphia Naval Yard, 1913-15; first chief of naval operations, 1915; admiral, 1916; first president of the National Council of Catholic men, 1921-25; devout Catholic.
Bernardin, Joseph L. (1928-96): Archbishop of Chicago, 1982-96 and Cardinal from 1983; auxiliary bp. of Atlanta, 1966-72 and abp. of Cincinnati, 1972-82; became renowned for the grace with which he bore a scurrilous accusation of sexual misconduct and his suffering from terminal cancer; authored a bestselling book on dying in Christ.
Bertran, Louis, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Betancur, Pedro de San José, Bl.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Beauregard, Pierre (1818-93) Confederate general in the Civil War; directed the bombardment of Fort Sumter in 1861; participated in the battles of First Manassas (Bull Run) and Shiloh; defended Charleston in 1863.
Bishop, William (1885-1953): Priest and founder of the Glenmary Home Missioners.
Black Elk (1866-1950): Native American, called the Holy Man of the Oglala; as a young man, he lived with his tribe in Montana at the time of Custer’s death at Little Big Horn and took part in the tragic Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890; converted in 1904 and known as a zealous catechist.
Blanc, Anthony (1792-1860): The first archbishop of New Orleans, 1850-60; bp. of New Orleans in 1835.
Blanchet, Francis N. (1795-1883): First archbishop of Oregon City (now Portland); his brother, Augustin Blanchet (1797-1887), was first bp. of Nesqually (now Seattle) from 1850-79.
Bohachevsky, Constantine (1884-1961): First metropolitan of the Byzantine Rite archeparchy of Philadelphia.
Bonaparte, Charles Joseph (1851-1921): Secretary of the Navy and U.S. Attorney General; the grandson of Jerome Bonaparte (brother to Napoleon Bonaparte); supporter and friend of Theodore Roosevelt; aggressively pursued Roosevelt’s antitrust policy.
Bourgeoys, Marguerite, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Brady, Matthew (c.1823-96) Photographer; photographed Pres. Lincoln; best known for his photographic record of the Civil War, now in the Library of Congress.
Brébeuf, Jean de, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Brennan, Francis J. (1894-1968): Cardinal and American prelate who served for many years in Rome; judge, 1940-59, and dean, 1959-67, of the Roman Rota in Rome; bp. in 1967; cardinal in 1967.
Brennan, William (1906-98): Associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, 1956-90; justice on the New Jersey supreme court, 1952-56; the most influential liberal during the 1980s and a supporter of abortion.
Brent, Margaret (1601-c.1671): The first woman in Maryland to own land; migrated to Maryland in 1638 and granted land by Lord Baltimore; named executrix for Governor Leonard Calvert.
Brown, Raymond, S.S. (d. 1998): Scripture scholar and professor of biblical studies at Union Theological Seminary in New York; author of over 37 books on Scripture and co-editor of two editions of The Jerome Biblical Commentary.
Brownson, Orestes (1803-76): Journalist and author and one of the leading lay theologians of the 19th century.
Burke, John (1875-1936): Paulist priest, social reformer, and editor of Catholic World (1903-22); coordinated the National Catholic War Council to advance Catholic perspectives during World War I; general secretary of the National Catholic Welfare Conference (NCWC); worked to promote a settlement of the Church-State conflict in Mexico.
Byrne, Andrew (1802-62): First bishop of Little Rock, Arkansas; worked to establish the new diocese in the face of numerous obstacles, including a chronic shortage of priests; avoided involvement in assorted controversies, especially slavery.
Cabot, John (c. 1450-98): Explorer; born in Italy; won the support of King Henry VII of England to find an all-water route to the East; set out to find the "Northwest Passage" but reached only Newfoundland; later made a voyage along the eastern coast of North America in the search for Japan; gave to England much of its claim to North America.
Cabrini, Frances Xavier:See under Saints of the Church.
Calvert, Cecil (1606-75): Second Lord Baltimore and a major figure in early Maryland; eldest son of Lord George Calvert, first Lord of Baltimore; inherited his father’s control of Maryland in 1632; strove to make the colony a model for religious toleration and protected Catholics from Puritan persecution through "The Act of Concerning Religion" following the execution of King Charles I in 1649.
Calvert, Charles (1628-1714): Third Lord Baltimore and second Lord Proprietary of Maryland; his period as Lord Baltimore marked the decline in the fortunes of the Calverts in Maryland; his eldest son, Benedict Calvert, abjured Catholicism in 1713.
Calvert, George (1580-1632): Founder of the Maryland colony and first Lord Baltimore; petitioned for a charter to found a colony in Maryland; his son, Cecil, inherited the title of Lord Baltimore.
Cancer de Barbastro, Louis: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Capra, Frank (1897–1991): Academy Award winning film director best known for such classics as It Happened One Night (1934), Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936), You Can’t Take It with You (1938), and It’s a Wonderful Life (1946).
Carberry, John J. (1904-98): Archbishop of St. Louis, 1968-79, and Cardinal from 1969.
Carey, Mathew (1760-1839): American publisher and banker; co-founder of Columbian Magazine (1786) and American Museum (1787), the first nationally read American literary journal; launched the country’s largest publishing house; served on the board of the bank of Pennsylvania, helped establish the Hibernian Society (for Irish immigrants).
Carroll, Austin (1835-1909): Sister of Mercy and caretaker of the poor.
Carroll, Charles (1737-1834): Called "First Citizen," one of the most prominent Catholic leaders in the cause of American independence; U.S. Senator, 1789-92; last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence.
Carroll, Daniel (1733-96): Elder brother of Abp. John Carroll and a Catholic leader during the American Revolution and the creation of the Constitution; supported the ratification of the Constitution; one of four Catholics chosen to represent American Catholics in congratulating George Washington on his election as president.
Carroll, John (1735-1815): First bishop and archbishop of Baltimore and the architect of the Church in the United States; a member of the Carroll family of Maryland; entered the Jesuits in Europe but returned to America after the suppression of the order; missionary priest in Maryland from 1774-83; named Superior of American missions in 1784; appointed bp. of Baltimore in 1789 with his diocese extending across the whole of the United States; promoted in 1808 to abp. of Baltimore; supported religious liberty and tolerance and established the Church on a firm administrative and spiritual footing in the new country.
Carson, Christopher "Kit" (1809-68): Trapper, guide, and frontiersman; convert to Catholicism under the influence of Padre Antonio José Martinez; active as a soldier in California against the Mexican army in 1846-47; served as Indian agent to the Utes and helped negotiate peace with the Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Navaho; later waged several campaigns against the Apaches and Navahos.
Cartier, Jacques (1491-1557): French explorer; sailed up the St. Lawrence River in the hopes of finding a route to the East; entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence and encountered the native tribes; his explorations opened up the wilderness of North America to further French exploration.
Casey, Robert (1932-2000): Governor of Pennsylvania and an outspoken supporter of the Pro-Life cause in the Democratic Party; as governor of Pennsylvania from 1986 to 1994 he was a strong Pro-Life advocate and had his named attached to a lawsuit that became the 1992 Supreme Court abortion case, Planned Parenthood vs. Casey which challenged the constitutionality of 1989's Pennsylvania Abortion Control Act; in 1992 and 1996 he was refused permission to address the Democratic National Convention because of his stand on abortion; in 1996, his speech at Cooper Union College in New York (where Abraham Lincoln had given a famous address on slavery in 1860) was prevented by pro-abortion activists.
Casey, Solanus, O.F.M., Cap. (1870-1957): Capuchin friar and noted healer; after failing academically in the seminary of St. Francis de Sales, entered the Capuchins and was finally ordained as a priest simplex, in which he was not given faculties to hear confessions or to preach; acquired a reputation for holiness and miracles, with a special devotion to the Eucharist and the BVM; his cause was opened in 1982 and given formal recognition in 1992.
Castillo, John de, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Catala, Magin: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Chabanel, Noel, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Champlain, Samuel de (1567-1635): French explorer and governor; established a fort at Quebec and explored Lakes Huron and Ontario, making possible the further exploration of the Mississippi Valley; established French relations with the Huron.
Charlot, Chief (c. 1831-1910): Native American chief of the Kalispel in Idaho; known properly as Little-Claw-of-the-Grizzly-Bear; became chief in 1870 and attempted to negotiate with the Federal Government to adhere to the terms of earlier treaties; continued white violations of Indian territory brought gradual destitution of the tribe; moved in 1889 to the Flathead reservation in Montana.
Chaumonot, Pierre Joseph: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Chavez, Cesar (1927-93): Founder of the United Farmworkers (UFW) and social activist; established the National Farmworkers Association (NFWA) for migrant farmworkers; joined with the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) to form the United Farmworkers Organizing Committee (UFWOC), the foundation for the UFWA; led a famous strike against the agricultural industry in the 1960s.
Cheverus, Jean Lefebvre de (1768-1836): Missionary, cardinal and bishop of Boston from 1810-23; born and ordained in France, he left his native country in the face of the Revolution; served as a priest in Boston from 1796-1808; established the diocese on a firm footing before departing back to France in 1823; made a cardinal in 1836.
Cody, John P. (1907-82): Archbishop of Chicago, 1965-82, and Cardinal from 1967; headed the largest archdiocese in America during the turbulent post-conciliar period; abp. of New Orleans, 1964-65; his time in Chicago was marked by numerous challenges to authority; also an advocate of civil rights.
Connolly, John, O.P. (1750-1825): Dominican friar and the second bp. of New York, 1814-25; born in Ireland; served in Rome during the turbulent days of the French occupation; became the second bp. of New York; worked to advance the cause of the Church in the city.
Conway, Katherine (1853-1927): Editor and novelist; trustee of the Boston Public Library; opposed extension of full suffrage to women.
Conwell, Bp. Henry (1748-1842): Bishop of Philadelphia, 1820-42; his time was marked by the difficulties of the Hogan Schism and trusteeism; summoned to Rome over diocesan management; coadj. bp., Francis Kenrick, was appointed in 1830, and Conwell held the see in name only until his death.
Cooke, Terence J. (1921-83): Archbisop of New York, 1968-83, and Cardinal from 1969; work also included efforts to promote the Military Vicariate; his cause for canonization is currently being promoted.
Corcoran, James (1820-89): A priest and theologian; advised the Baltimore Provincial Councils and the Baltimore Plenary Councils; theological advisor to Vatican Council I (1869-70); a staunch supporter of antebellum Southern culture, separation of Church and State, and Ultramontane Catholicism.
Corrigan, Michael A. (1839-1902): Archbishop of New York from 1885-1902; one of the most vocal leaders of conservative Catholicism and a vigorous opponent of Americanism; complained to Rome about the Knights of Labor and supported Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical Testem Benevolentiae, condemning the errors of Americanism.
Coughlin, Charles (1891-1979): Priest and famous radio preacher who enjoyed national prominence during the Great Depression; founded the National Union for Social Justice to promote social justice, but both his writings and radio program were increasingly anti-Semitic; forced from the air in 1942.
Crétin, Joseph (1799-1857): Missionary bishop; born in France; worked in the Dubuque missions; preached among the Winnebago Indians; appointed the first bp. of St. Paul, 1851-57; heavily promoted the Church in the region, founding 26 churches, 24 schools, and a hospital.
Crosby, "Bing" (1903-77): Singer and entertainer; called Bing after his fondness for "The Bingville Bungle" comic strip; became famous as a singer from 1932 and starred in over 70 films, including the popular "Road" series with Bob Hope; among his most beloved films was Going My Way (1944), in which he played a priest; two songs, "White Christmas" and "Silent Night," became all-time classics.
Crowley, Patrick (1911-74): Lawyer and cofounder of the Christian Family Movement in the 1940s with his wife Patricia; helped establish the International Confederation of the Christian Family Movement (ICCFM) in 1966 and served on the Papal Commission on Birth Control from 1964-67.
Curley, James (1796-1889): Massachusetts politician; the model for Edwin O’Connor’s novel The Last Hurrah; served in the U.S. House of Representatives, 1910-14; elected mayor of Boston for the first of several times in 1914; elected governor of Massachusetts in 1934.
Curran, John (1859-1936): Labor priest and supporter of mine workers; a friend of Theodore Roosevelt and John Mitchell, head of the United Mine Workers; involved himself in a variety of labor disputes.
Cushing, Richard J. (1895-1970): Archbishop of Boston, 1944-70, and Cardinal from 1958; auxiliary bp. of Boston, 1939-44; close friend of the Kennedy family and one of the most respected and beloved Catholic leaders in the United States; supported reforms of Vatican Council II.
Daley, Richard (1902-76): Mayor of Chicago, 1955-76; oversaw one of the most efficient political machines in American politics; campaigned vigorously for John F. Kennedy and proved essential in his victory in 1960; presided over the city during the 1968 Democratic National Convention; his son, Richard M. Daley, subsequently served as mayor of Chicago and Secretary of Commerce in the Clinton administration.
Damien de Veuster, S.S.C.C. (1840-89)"The Leper Priest of Molokai"; born in Belgium; entered the Sacred Hearts Fathers and replaced his brother Pamphile in the Hawaiian missions; after labors on the Big Island, went to Molokai to work among the lepers from 1873; established orphanages, hospitals, and houses for the lepers; diagnosed with leprosy in 1884; honored with the rank of Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Kalakaua, 1881; beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1995.
Daniel, Anthony, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
David, Jean Baptiste, S.S. (1761-1841): Missionary, Sulpician, and coadj. bishop of Bardstown, 1819-41; the first bp. consecrated in the West (in 1819), he resisted appointment as bp. of Bardstown in 1832; assisted in the founding of the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth.
Davis, Thurston, S.J. (1913-86): Jesuit priest, professor, and editor; editor of America from 1953-68; founder of La Farge Institute to promote the study of religious traditions.
Day, Dorothy (1897-1980): Social activist and founder of the Catholic Worker movement; after a socialist youth marked by an abortion, she converted to Catholicism in 1927, following the birth and baptism of her daughter that same year; met Peter Maurin in 1932 and launched in 1933 The Catholic Worker, the foundation for the Catholic Worker movement; created the first of many houses of hospitality in New York, 1935; opposed World War II, the Korean War, and Vietnam; arrested in 1973 with Cesar Chavez during a farm workers’ demonstration; one of the most influential lay Catholics of the 20th century.
Dearden, John F. (1907-88): Archbishop of Detroit, 1958-80 and Cardinal from 1969; bp. of Pittsburgh, 1950-58; president of the NCCB from 1966-71.
De Cheverus, John L.: See Cheverus, John
De Smet, Pierre Jean: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Dietz, Peter (1878-1947): Labor priest and editor; editor of Central Blatt and Social Justice from 1909-10; secretary of Social Service Commission of American Federation of Catholic Societies, 1911-18; founder of American Academy for Christian Democracy for Women, 1915.
DiMaggio, Joe (1914-1999): Legendary baseball player, called "Joltin’ Joe" and the "Yankee Clipper"; spent his entire career (1936-51) with the New York Yankees; set a major-league record in 1941 by hitting safely in 56 straight games; married briefly to Marilyn Monroe; inducted in 1955 into the Baseball Hall of Fame; raised millions for the Joe DiMaggio Children’s Hospital.
Dohen, Dorothy (1923-84): Writer and social worker; editor of Integrity from 1952-56; professor, Fordham University, 1960-84; author on Catholic lay spirituality.
Doherty, Catherine de Hueck (1896-1985): Social activist and spiritual writer; born in Russia and fled during the Bolshevik Revolution; established Friendship House to care for those in need of food, shelter, and clothing; subsequently established Madonna House to promote spirituality of a Western and Eastern inspiration.
Dooley, Thomas (1927-61): Physician, activist, and one of the most popular Catholics in the 1950s; enlisted in the U.S. Navy after graduating from medical school; worked to care for the North Vietnamese refugees who fled their homes following Dienbienphu; supported the South Vietnamese government; authored numerous popular books on his work; in 1959, he was one of the most admired men in America (the only other Catholic on the list was John F. Kennedy).
Dorsey, John (1874-1926): Missionary and the first African-American Josephite priest ordained in the United States; supporter of Catholic missions among African-Americans, including pastoral assignments in Nashville and Memphis; assaulted in 1924 and left paralyzed; endured humiliations, persecutions, and violence for the Catholic faith.
Dougherty, Dennis (1865-1951):Archbishop of Philadelphia, 1918-51, and Cardinal from 1921; bp. of Nueva Segovia, P.I., from 1903-08; bp. of Jaro, P.I., from 1908-15; bp. of Buffalo, from 1915-18; served as abp. in the long period of the Great Depression and World War II.
Drexel, Katharine: See under Saints of the Church.
Drossaerts, Arthur J. (1862-1940): The first Archbishop of San Antonio, 1926-40; native of Holland; ordained on June 15, 1889; bp. of San Antonio 1918-26.
Dubois, Jean, S.S. (1764-1842): Bishop of New York from 1826-42; born in France, journeyed to labor in the missions of the United States.
Dubourg, Louis William, S.S. (1766-1833): Bishop of Louisiana and the Two Floridas (now New Orleans), 1815-25; born in Santo Domingo; ordained in 1788; later returned to France, serving as bp. of Montauban,1826-33, and abp. of Besançon in 1833.
Duchesne, Rose Philippine, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Duffy, Francis (1871-1932): Chaplain and educator; served for 14 years as a teacher at Dunwoodie Seminary; served as a chaplain during World War I from 1917-20; promoted ecumenism and supported Alfred E. Smith.
Durante, Jimmy (1893-1980): Comedian best known for his hoarse voice, ample nose, and time-worn hat; starred in numerous films and Broadway shows, including Red, Hot, and Blue (1936).
Elliott, Walter (1842-1928): Priest, missionary, and editor; Civil War veteran; joined the Paulists in 1868 and ordained in 1872; labored among non-Catholics and established the Apostolic Mission House for home mission work; founding editor of the Missionary; author of famous biography on Isaac Hecker, 1891, that helped spark the Americanist controversy and the issue of the encyclical Testem Benevolentiae.
Ellis, John Tracy (1905-92): Historian and educator, for many years the dean of Catholic Church historians in the U.S.; ordained in 1938; professor at Catholic University of America from 1938-64; earned praise for his many writings; president of the American Catholic Historical Society and American Society of Church History.
England, John (1786-1842): First Bishop of Charleston, 1820-42; born in Ireland; president of College of St. Mary, in Cork, Ireland, from 1812-17; ardent supporter of the compatibility between Catholicism and American democracy; founded the first national Catholic newspaper, the U.S. Catholic Miscellany; invited in 1926 to address the U.S. Congress, the first Catholic clergyman so honored; apostolic delegate to Haiti, 1833-37.
Farley, John (1842-1918): Archbishop of New York, 1902-18 and Cardinal from 1911; born in Ireland; auxiliary bp. of New York from 1895-1902; promoted education.
Farmer, Ferdinand: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Feehan, Patrick (1829-1902): First Archbishop of Chicago, 1880-92; born in Ireland and ordained in St. Louis in 1852; bp. of Nashville from 1865-80; renowned preacher and promoter of education; later years troubled by poor relations with Polish Catholics and internal conflicts among the Irish priests.
Fenton, Joseph (1906-69): American theologian, priest, and supporter of neo-Scholasticism; professor and dean of theology at Catholic University of America; cofounder of Catholic Theological Society of America, 1946; cofounder of Mariological Society, 1949; peritus at Vatican Council II, 1962-65.
Fenwick, Edward D., O.P. (1768-1832): First Bishop of Cincinnati from 1822-32; founder of the Catholic Telegraph-Register, 1831; efforts at education and missions prompted a Protestant counter-reaction, including Lyman Beecher’s Plea for the West.
Fink, Michael, O.S.B. (1834-1904): First Bishop of Leavenworth (now Kansas City), from 1877-1904; born in Germany; coadj. vicar apostolic from 1871-74, and vicar apostolic from 1874-77, of the Kansas and Indian Territory.
Fitzsimmons, Thomas (1741-1811): Signer of the U.S. Constitution; born in Ireland; founded the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick in America; assisted the cause of the American Revolution; was one of two Catholic delegates (with Daniel Carroll) to the Constitutional convention in 1787; served in the House of Representatives, 1788-95; grandfather of General Gordon B. Meade, victor of the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863.
Flaget, Benedict J.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Flanagan, Edward (1886-1948): Founder of Father Flanagan’s Boys’ Town; born in Ireland and ordained in 1912; served in Omaha, Nebraska, founded Boys’ Town in 1917 to care for homeless boys; the home became internationally known.
Floersh, John (1886-1968): First Archbishop of Louisville from 1937-67; coadj. bp. of Louisville from 1923-24; bp. of Louisville from 1924-37.
Ford, John (1895-1973): Motion Picture Director and anticommunist; a director of some 130 films, he won five Academy Awards for Best Director, including Stagecoach (1939), The Grapes of Wrath (1940), How Green Was My Valley (1941), and The Quiet Man (1952); received the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
Friess, Mother Caroline (1824-92): Mother superior, School Sisters of Notre Dame in America from 1850-92; born in France; by 1892, her sisters had founded 265 parochial schools in 16 states and taught 70,000 pupils.
Furfrey, Paul (1897-1992): Priest, sociologist, and social justice reformer; professor and chairman of Sociology department, Catholic University of America, 1934-66; director, Juvenile Delinquency Evaluation Project, 1956-61; spokesperson for Christian personalism; supporter of Catholic Worker Movement and anti-war activist during Vietnam.
Gallitzin, Demetrius: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Garnier, Charles, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Gaston, William (1778-1844): Catholic layperson and prominent leader in North Carolina; first Catholic to serve in the North Carolina state legislature and supreme court; served in U.S. House of Representatives; although a slaveholder, advocated abolition.
Gibault, Pierre: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Gibbons, James (1834-1921): Archbishop of Baltimore, 1877-1921, the second American cardinal from 1886, and one of the foremost American prelates of the 19th century; vicar apostolic for North Carolina, 1868-72; bp. of Richmond, 1872-77; coadj. bp. of Baltimore, May-Oct., 1877; defended the Knights of Labor and was a famed champion of the poor and working class; promoted the Americanization of the Church; immensely popular in the country among Catholics and non-Catholics.
Glennon, John J. (1862-1946): Archbishop of St. Louis, 1903-46 and Cardinal from 1946; born in Ireland; coadj. bp. of Kansas City, Mo. From 1896-1903; coadj. of St. Louis from Apr.-Oct., 1903; promoted Catholic social work; founded schools, hospitals, and a new seminary; first cardinal from the see of St. Louis.
Goldstein, David (1870-1958): Convert from Judaism and prominent Catholic layperson; born in England and raised in a Jewish family and as a Socialist; converted in 1905 and became opponent of Socialism; cofounder (with Martha Moore Avery) of the Catholic Truth Guild in 1917; founder, Catholic Campaigners for Christ, 1936.
Gonzalez, Roch, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Goupil, René, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Gravier, Jacques: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Guérin, Mother Theodore (1798-1856): Beati and founding superior of the Sisters of Providence, St. Mary-of-the Woods, Indiana, 1840-56; beatified on Oct. 25, 1998 by Pope John Paul II.
Guiney, Louise (1861-1920): Essayist, poet, and scholar; a major figure in the literary revival in the United States of the late 19th century.
Haas, Francis (1899-1953): Priest, professor, sociologist, and editor; supporter of labor and social and racial justice; named to the Civil Rights Commission by President Harry Truman.
Hallinan, Paul (1911-68): Priest, chaplain, and Archbishop of Atlanta from 1962-68; served as army chaplain from 1942-45; president of National Association of Newman Club Chaplains from 1952-58; bp. of Charleston from 1958-62; as abp., he supported civil rights.
Hayes, Carlton (1882-1964): Diplomat and historian; earned a doctorate in history from Columbia University; noted historian; co-founded the National Association of Christians and Jews; ambassador to Spain from 1942-45.
Hayes, Helen (1900-93): Actress; enjoyed a career of 60 years, winner of two Academy Awards, as well as Emmy Awards and Tony Awards; beloved figure on the Broadway stage; authored autobiography, My Life in Three Acts (1990).
Hayes, Patrick J. (1867-1938): Archbishop of New York, 1919-38, and Cardinal from 1924; auxiliary bp. of New York, 1914-19; Military Ordinary for Catholic American chaplains during World War I; founded Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of New York and did much to promote social welfare; wielded much influence in local politics (his private residence was termed "The Powerhouse").
Healy, James (1830-1900): Bishop of Portland from 1875-1900; son of an Irish father and an African-American mother; founded 60 parishes, 68 mission stations, and 18 schools and convents; also served as consultant to the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Hecker, Isaac (1819-88): Priest, theologian and founder of the Paulists; convert in 1844; entered the Redemptorists; missionary in the U.S., 1851-57; founder and superior of the Congregation of Missionary Priests of St. Paul the Apostle (Paulists), 1858-88; developed an apologetic that stressed the benefits of American culture and political traditions; following his death, the story of his life by Walter Elliott was the cause of the Americanist controversy that sparked the papal encyclical Testem Benevolentiae, 1899, by Pope Leo XIII, condemning assorted ideas connected with Hecker.
Heeney, Cornelius (1754-1848): Philanthropist; born in Ireland and emigrated to New York; partner for a time of John Jacob Astor in fur trading; helped establish old St. Patrick’s Cathedral; patron of John McCloskey, the future cardinal abp. of New York; devoted time and money to Catholic charities.
Hennepin, Louis (1626-after 1701): Missionary and member of the Recollet Order of Friars Minor; traveled to the Mississippi River and was captured by the Sioux; rescued by the French explorer Daniel Guysolon du Lhut.
Henni, John M. (1805-81): First Archbishop of Milwaukee from 1875-81; born in Switzerland; first bp. of Milwaukee from 1844-75.
Heuser, Herman (1852-1933): Priest, professor, and editor; born in Germany; founding editor of American Ecclesiastical Review, 1899-1914; founding editor of the Dolphin, 1900-08.
Hildebrand, Dietrich von (1889-1977): Philosopher; born in Florence; converted in 1914; left Nazi Germany voluntarily in 1933 to escape the Nazis and later joined Fordham University in 1941; ranked as one of the most prominent and devoutly Catholic philosophers of the second half of the 20th century.
Hitchcock, Alfred (1899–1980) Anglo-American film director; considered a true master of suspense films; directed such films as The Lady Vanishes (1938), Notorious (1946), Strangers on a Train (1951), Psycho (1960), and Frenzy (1972).
Hogan, John J. (1829-1913): First Bishop of Kansas City, 1880-1913; born in Ireland; first bp. of St. Joseph from 1868-80.
Hughes, John J. (1797-1864): First Archbishop of New York, 1850-64; born in Ireland and ordained in 1826 in New York; coadj. bp. of New York from 1837-42; bp. of New York from 1842-50; opposed anti-Catholic riots in 1844; one of the foremost Catholic leaders in the U.S.; addressed Congress in 1847; traveled to Europe to promote the Union cause during the Civil War; championed the cause of immigrants.
Ireland, John (1838-1918): First archbishop of St. Paul from 1888-1918; born in Ireland and ordained in 1861 in St. Paul; coadj. bp. of St. Paul from 1875-84; bp. of St. Paul from 1884-88; promoted the Catholic University of America and was an ardent support of Americanizing the Church in the U.S., the Knights of Labor and a controversial school plan; leading figure in the Americanist controversy.
Ireland, Mother Seraphine (1842-1930): Mother Superior of the Sisters of St. Joseph, province of St. Paul, 1882-1921; sister of Abp. John Ireland; helped to promote the Sisters of St. Joseph Carondelet in the Midwest of the U.S.
Ives, Levi (1797-1867): Convert to Catholicism and raised as an Episcopalian, he became bp. of North Carolina in 1831; a member of the Tractarian movement, he entered the Catholic Church in 1852; worked as a promoter of Catholic Charities from 1854-67.
Jackson, Carol (1911-37): Catholic convert and editor; raised an atheist, she converted in 1941; influenced by Catholic Worker Movement; cofounder and coeditor of Integrity from 1946-52.
Jesuit North American Martyrs: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Jogues, Isaac, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Jolliet, Louis (1645-1700): French explorer; after brief studies to be a priest, he became a fur trader; set out in 1673 with Fr. Jacques Marquette to explore the copper mines of Lake Superior; reached the Mississippi, Ohio, and Arkansas Rivers; had positive dealing with local native Americans.
Jones, Mary (c.1830-1930): Irish-born labor union organizer and political activist; operated dressmaking business in 1861; founder of the Social Democratic Party in 1898; organizer of the United Mine Workers of America in 1900; a founder of the Industrial Workers of the World in 1905; known as "mother" among the male labor workers.
Keane, John J. (1839-1918): Archbishop of Dubuque from 1900-11 and a defender of the Americanist movement; born in Ireland; bp. of Richmond from 1878-88; rector of the Catholic University of America from 1888-97; consultor of Congregation for Propagation of the Faith, 1897-1900; opposed the condemnation of the Knights of Labor and was an ally of the work of John Ireland and John Gibbons.
Kelley, Francis (1870-1948): Priest and founder of the Catholic Church Extension Society; founder and editor of Extension Magazine from 1905-24; bp. of Oklahoma City-Tulsa from 1924-28.
Kelly, Grace (1929-82): Actress and Princess Consort of Monaco; after a start in television and on stage, she launched a major film career in High Noon (1951) and won the Academy Award for The Country Girl (1954); met Prince Rainier III of Monaco at the Cannes Film Festival in 1954 and married him in 1956; died, after a car crash, on Sept. 14, 1982.
Kennedy, John F. (1917-63): President of the United States; born into the powerful Kennedy family of Massachusetts, he became a hero during World War II for his command of PT109; served in U.S. Congress and then U.S. Senate (1952-60); married Jacqueline Bouvier in 1953; elected the first Catholic president in 1960; domestic policy included program of tax cuts, civil rights, and social security; foreign policy distinguished by the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis; assassinated on Nov. 22, 1963.
Kennedy, Joseph (1888-1969): Diplomat, businessman, and patriarch of the Kennedy family; born into the family of a ward boss in Boston, he earned his first million by the age of 30; involved in banking, shipbuilding, and motion pictures; named chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission in 1934 by Franklin Roosevelt; ambassador to Great Britain from 1937-40; devoted his later years to pushing his children’s political advancement.
Kennedy, Robert (1925-68): U.S. Senator and Attorney General; third son of Joseph Kennedy and brother of John F. Kennedy; managed his brother’s successful presidential bid in 1960 and was named Attorney General; served as JFK’s foremost advisor and was a strong force in the passing of the Civil Rights Act (1964); elected Senator from New York in 1964; launched campaign for president in 1968, during which he was assassinated.
Kenrick, Francis P. (1796-1863): Archbishop of Baltimore from 1851-63; born in Ireland and educated in Rome; labored in Bardstown, Kentucky and defended the Catholic faith; coadj. of Philadelphia from 1830-42, with the task of repairing diocesan unity after trustee crisis; bp. of Philadelphia from 1842-51; founded St. Charles Borromeo Seminary in 1832 and promoted education; organized and presided over the first Plenary Council of Baltimore in 1852; promoted the foundation of the North American College.
Kenrick, Peter (1806-96): Brother of Francis Kenrick and first archbishop of St. Louis from 1847-95; born in Ireland; after service in Ireland, invited by his brother to Philadelphia; rector of the cathedral and president of St. Charles Borromeo Seminary from 1833-41; coadj. bp. of St. Louis from 1841-43; bp. from 1843-47; took part in Vatican Council I and opposed the definition of papal infallibility.
Kerby, William (1870-1936): Priest and founder of the national Conference of Catholic Charities; founded and organized the national Conference of Catholic Charities in 1910; co-founder of the National Catholic School of Social Service in 1918; editor of American Ecclesiastical Review from 1927-36; promoted social justice.
Kilmer, Joyce (1886-1918): Poet; born Alfred Kilmer, he converted to Catholicism in 1913 with his wife; a popular poet in the United States and Europe; killed in World War I during the Second Battle of the Marne.
Kino, Eusebio: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Kohlmann, Anthony (1771-1836): Jesuit and theologian; born in Alsace; joined the Russian Jesuit chapter in 1803; sent to the United States; pastor and administrator of the diocese of New York from 1808-15; won "The Catholic Question," a controversy over the seal of confession in 1812; consultor to Vatican congregations in Rome from 1824-36.
Kosciuszko, Thaddeus (1746-1817): Polish soldier; a member of the minor Polish aristocracy, he volunteered for the American Revolution in 1776; commissioned as a colonel, he designed West Point and helped in the victory at Saratoga and Ticonderoga; retired to Poland and fought against the Russians in a doomed effort to win Polish independence.
Kreisler, Fritz (1875-62): Composer and violinist; born in Austria, debuted in New York as a virtuoso violinist and toured from 1888-89; opposed the Nazis and was forced to leave Europe in 1939; American citizen in 1943.
Krol, John Joseph (1910-96): Archbishop of Philadelphia from 1961-88 and Cardinal from 1967; auxiliary bp. of Cleveland from 1953-61; one of the most devoted supporters of Pope John Paul II among the American hierarchy.
L’Enfant, Pierre (1754-1825): Architect; born in France; submitted plans in 1791 for the new capital city at Washington at Pres. Washington’s request; eventually dismissed because of various personality differences; in 1889 the plans were recovered from the archives, and the capital was developed in 1901 along his vision.
La Farge, John (1880-1963): Priest, reformer, and editor; founder of the Cardinal Gibbons Institute in 1924, to educate African-Americans in Maryland; editor on the staff of America from 1926-63; founded the Laymen’s Union in 1934 to promote spiritual formation among African-Americans.
Lafayette, Marquis de (1757-1834): French soldier and statesman; a member of a French noble family, he joined the Continental Army in 1777 and received a position on George Washington’s staff; instrumental in winning support for the American cause in Europe; a leading figure in the early days of the French Revolution, he was condemned by the Jacobins in 1792 and fled France; returned in 1797 and resumed a public life in 1814.
Lalemant, Gabriel, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Lamy, Jean Baptiste: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Lange, Mary (1784-1882): Founding mother superior of the Oblate Sisters of Providence in Baltimore from 1829-32; born in the Santo Domingo, Haiti, her family emigrated to Cuba and then the U.S.; taught Haitian children in Baltimore; founded the Oblate Sisters of Providence to educate African-American children; served among the poor, the sick, and the dying, especially during the cholera epidemics in Baltimore.
Las Casas, Bartolome: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Lathrop, Rose Hawthorne (1851-1926): Cofounder of the Dominican Congregation of St. Rose of Lima in 1900; the third daughter of Nathaniel Hawthorne; married George Parsons Lathrop with whom she entered the Church in 1891; separated from her husband because of his alcoholism (he died in 1898); established the Dominican Congregation of St. Rose of Lima (Servants of Relief for Incurable Cancer), to care for those dying and neglected; pioneered hospice work in the United States for the terminally ill.
Laval, Françoise de Montmorency, Bl.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Lewis, Edmonia (1845-after 1909): First African-American sculptress; daughter of an African-American father and an Ojibwe mother; studied at Oberlin College, Ohio, and Boston; emigrated to Rome where she remained for the rest of her life; Pope Pius XI visited her studio; her work was displayed in Europe and the United States, including the National Museum of American Art.
Ligutti, Luigi (1885-1983): Priest and leading figure in the Catholic rural life movement; born in Italy; after pastoral service became executive secretary and director of the National Catholic Rural Life Conference from 1938-58; editor of Land and Home from 1942-47; editor of Christian Farmer News Letter in 1947; director of international affairs for the NCRLC from 1958-70; founded the Agrimissio in Rome, to promote agriculture in the developing parts of the world.
Lombardi, Vince (1913–70): American football coach; born in New York City; head coach of the Green Bay Packers from 1959-69 and won five championships; head coach briefly of the Washington Redskins, from 1969-70.
Lombardo, Guy (1902-77): Canadian born band leader; led the band of the Royal Canadians, debuting in New York in 1929; was best known for his New Year’s Eve performances in New York City.
Longstreet, James (1821-1904): Confederate general during the Civil War; graduated from West point in 1842 and fought in the Mexican War; one of the most competent corps commanders under Robert E. Lee; after the war, he joined the Republican Party and served in assorted posts; converted in 1877.
Loras, Matthias (1792-1858): First bishop of Dubuque from 1837-58; born in France, he was a friend and schoolmate of St. Jean Vianney; after a distinguished career in France, he went to America in 1828; as bp., he promoted a seminary, missionary activity on the Mississippi River, German and Irish immigration.
Lord, Daniel (1888-1955): Jesuit priest and writer; author of 30 books, 50 plays, 12 musicals, and six pageants; assisted Cecil B. DeMille on the film King of Kings; helped draft Motion Picture Production Code; director of the Sodality of the Blessed Virgin from 1948-55, the largest Catholic youth organization in the U.S.
Luce, Clare Boothe (1903-87): Author, playwright, ambassador, and politician; wife of Henry C. Luce (publisher of Time, Fortune, and Sports Illustrated); converted to Catholicism in 1946 under the influence of then Msgr. Fulton J. Sheen; keynote speaker at the 1944 Republican National Convention; leading woman Catholic politician, serving in the U.S. House from 1942-46; U.S. ambassador to Italy from 1953-57.
Lucey, Robert E. (1891-1977): Archbishop of San Antonio from 1941-69; pastoral work in Los Angeles, especially among the homeless from 1916-34; bp. of Amarillo from 1934-41; supported CCD programs and the policies of Lyndon Johnson concerning poverty and the Vietnam War.
Lynch, Patrick N. (1817-82): Bishop of Charleston from 1858-82 and a leading Catholic in the South during the Civil War; born in Ireland; sent twice to Europe to plead the Southern cause; returned to the U.S. after the war only following a presidential pardon; took part in Vatican Council I and was in favor of papal infallibility.
McCarthy, Joseph (1908-57): American politician; U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-57); rose to national prominence through the permanent subcommittee on investigations which looked into the threat of Communists against the country; held public hearings in which he accused army officials, members of the media, and public figures of being Communists; his charges were never proved, and he was censured by the Senate in 1954.
McCloskey, John (1810-85): Archbishop of New York from 1864-85 and the first U.S. Cardinal from 1875; coadj. bp. of New York from 1843-47; first bp. of Albany from 1847-64; attended Vatican Council I (1869-70); promoted harmony and growth of the Church in New York; completed St. Patrick’s cathedral, an important symbol of Catholicism’s progress in the city and the prosperity of its members; made cardinal in recognition of McCloskey’s work and the prominence of the New York archdiocese.
McGinley, Phyllis (1905-78): Writer and poet; her first book of poetry was published in 1934; she won the Pulitzer Prize in 1961 for Times Three; won numerous other literary awards.
McIntyre, James F. (1886-1979): Archbishop of Los Angeles from 1948-70 and Cardinal from 1953; aux. bp. of New York from 1941-46; coadj. abp. of New York from 1946-48; oversaw the rapid and extensive expansion of the Church in Los Angeles; by 1970, there were 318 parishes and 350 schools; supported CCD programs and seminary education.
McKenzie, John (1910-91): Jesuit priest and biblical scholar; first Catholic president of the Society of Biblical Literature; eventually left the Jesuits.
McMaster, James (1820-86): Journalist; converted in 1845, he studied briefly with the Redemptorists; launched a career in journalism in 1846; editor of the Freeman’s Journal which became a powerful voice in American Catholicism; imprisoned briefly in 1861-62 for his opposition to Lincoln and the Civil War; inaugurated the first American pilgrimage to Rome.
McQuaid, Bernard (1823-1909): First bishop of Rochester from 1868-1909; promoted Americanization and education; predicted suffrage for women.
Mack, Connie (1862-1956): Baseball player and manager of the Philadelphia Athletics from 1901-51; he led to nine American League pennants and five World Series championships between 1902 and 1930.
Machebeuf, Joseph P. (1812-89): First bishop of Denver, 1887-89; born in France; vicar apostolic Colorado and Utah from 1868-87; established 102 churches and chapels, ten hospitals, nine academies, and a college.
Manning, Timothy (1909-89): Archbishop of Los Angeles, 1970-85 and Cardinal from 1973; born in Ireland; American citizen, 1944; aux. bp. of Los Angeles from 1946-67; first bp. of Fresno, 1967-69; coadj. archbishop of Los Angeles from 1969-70.
Manogue, Patrick: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Marechal, Ambrose, S.S. (1766-1828): Archbishop of Baltimore from 1817-28; born in France; member of the Sulpicians, taught in French seminaries and St. Mary’s Seminary, Baltimore; period as abp. was marked by a transition in the life of the Church as growth of the Irish influence was increasingly felt.
Margil, Antonio: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Marie of the Incarnation, Bl.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Markoe, William (1892-1969): Jesuit priest and advocate of interracial justice; as a priest, authored articles in America promoting social justice for African-Americans; editor of Chronicale/Interracial Review from 1930-33; served as a missionary in the Jesuit mission band in Missouri province from 1948-51.
Marquette, Jacques: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Marty, Martin (1834-96): Missionary, Benedictine, and bishop; born in Switzerland; arrived in St. Meinrad, Indiana in 1860; first abbot, 1870; chose himself as a missionary to the Dakota (Sioux) Indians, 1876 and encountered initial refusal from the local pastor as he did not bear a celebret; labored among the Native Americans; vicar apostolic of the Dakota Territory, 1880-89; first bishop of Sioux Falls, 1889-94; bishop of St. Cloud, 1894-96; called "Black Robe Lean Chief" among the Native Americans.
Massias (Macias), John de, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Maurin, Aristode Peter (1877-1949): Lay activist and cofounder with Dorothy Day of the Catholic Worker Movement; born in France; embraced a Franciscan spirit of poverty; met Day in 1932; founded with her The Catholic Worker, 1933; his obituary was reported in The New York Times and L’Osservatore Romano.
Mazzuchelli, Samuel C.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Meany, William George (1894-80): Labor leader and president of the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (1955–79); a plumber; secretary-treasurer of the AFL, 1939-52; president, AFL, 1952-55; head of the new federation after the merger of the AFL and CIO from 1955; denounced economic policies of Pres. Jimmy Carter.
Medeiros, Humberto S. (1915-83): Archbishop of Boston from 1970-83 and cardinal from 1973; born in the Azores and a U.S. citizen from 1940; bp. of Brownsville from 1966-70; abp. during a turbulent period in modern U.S. Catholic history; took part in the 1978 papal conclaves.
Membre, Zenobius: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Merton, Thomas (1915-68): Trappist monk and influential spiritual writer; after a famed conversion entered the Trappists; authored Seven Storey Mountain, Seeds of Contemplation, Mystics and Zen Masters, The New Man.
Mestrovic, Ivan (1883-1962): Sculptor; born in Croatia; studied in Vienna; exhibited throughout Europe and inspired a nationalist movement among the Croats and Serbs; imprisoned by the Fascists, 1941 (released through Vatican intervention); emigrated to the U.S., 1947; citizen, 1953; taught at Syracuse University and Notre Dame; first sculptor to be honored with a one-man show at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Meyer, Albert (1903-65): Archbishop of Chicago, 1958-65 and Cardinal from 1959; bp. of Superior from 1946-53; abp. of Milwaukee, 1953-58; worked for civil rights and promoted ecumenism.
Michel, Virgil (1890-1938): Liturgist; considered the founder of the American Catholic liturgical movement.
Monaghan, John (1889-1961): Priest and social activist; born in Ireland; taught at cathedral College, New York, 1922-38; co-founder of the Association of Catholic Trade Unionist (ACTU) to inform Catholic trade unionists of Catholic social teaching; beloved pastor of St. Margaret Mary parish, 1939-54 and St. Michael’s parish, 1954-61.
Mooney, Edward (1882-1958): First archbishop of Detroit, 1937-58 and Cardinal from 1946; apostolic delegate to India from 1926-31; apostolic delegate Japan from 1931-33; bp. of Rochester from 1933-37; brilliant diplomat; curtailed the activities of Fr. Charles Coughlin.
Moylan, Stephen (1737-1811): Revolutionary era general and businessman; born in Ireland; quartermaster general of the Continental Army and distinguished soldier during the war.
Moczygemba, Leopold (1824-91): See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Mudd, Samuel (1833-83): Physician and supposed member of the conspiracy against Abraham Lincoln in 1865; imprisoned from 1865-69; pardoned by Andrew Johnson.
Muench, Aloysius (1889-1962): Cardinal from 1959 and the first American to hold office in the Curia; bp. of Fargo from 1935-59; apostolic visitator to Germany, 1946 and nuncio to Germany from 1951-59.
Mundelein, George (1872-1939): Archbishop of Chicago from 1915-39 and Cardinal from 1924; auxiliary bp. of Brooklyn from 1909-15; first cardinal in the Midwest; supporter of Franklin Roosevelt.
Murray, John Courtney (1904-67): Jesuit priest and influential theologian; professor of theology and philosophy, peritus at Vatican Council II, and editor of Theological Studies from 1941-67; studied the Church’s relationship to society and state.
Nerinckx, Charles: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Neumann, St. John: See under Saints of the Church.
Noll, John F. (1875-1956): Bishop of Fort Wayne, 1925-56, personal titular abp. in 1953, and publisher; established Our Sunday Visitor in 1912.
O’Boyle, Patrick A. (1896-1987): Archbishop of Washington, D.C., 1948-73 and Cardinal from 1967; director of the Catholic War Relief Services and War relief Services of the National Catholic Welfare Conference; champion of civil rights.
O’Connell, Denis (1849-1927): Bishop of Richmond, 1912-26; friend of Cardinal James Gibbons; rector of the North American College; rector of the Catholic University of America; opposed anti-Catholicism in Virginia.
O’Connell, William H. (1859-1944): Archbishop of Boston, 1907-44 and Cardinal from 1911; bp. of Portland, 1901-06; coadj. bp. of Boston (Constantia), 1906-07; prominent figure in American Catholic life and politics.
O’Connor, Edwin (1918-68): Author; columnist for the Boston Herald under the pseudonym "Roger Swift"; author of The Oracle (1951), The Last Hurrah (1958), The Edge of Sadness (1961), I was Dancing (1964), and All in the Family (1966).
O’Connor, Flannery (1925-64): Author; novels included Wise Blood (1952) and The Violent Bear It Away (1960), and short stories, collected in such works as A Good Man is Hard to Find (1955).
O’Connor, John J. (1920-2000): Archbishop of New York from 1984-2000 and Cardinal from 1985; born in Philadelphia, Pa.; ord. priest in1945; joined U.S. Navy and Marine Corps as a chaplain, 1952; overseas posts included service in South Korea and Vietnam; U.S. Navy chief of chaplains, 1975; retired from Navy June 1, 1979, with rank of rear admiral; aux. of military vicariate (Curzola), (1979-83); bp. of Scranton (1983-84); one of the most prominent of all American Church leaders and a powerful spokesman for the Pro-Life cause.
O’Hara, Edwin (1881-1956): Bishop of Great Falls, 1930-56 and social activist; promoter of social justice, including workers’ rights and rural life; named personal abp. in 1954.
O’Hara, John F., C.S.C. (1888-1960): Archbishop of Philadelphia, 1951-60 and Cardinal from 1958; delegate of U.S. military vicar, 1940-45; bp. Buffalo, 1945-51; promoted concern for Native Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans and education.
O’Neill, Thomas (Tip) (1912-94): Speaker of the House of Representatives from 1977-87; first elected in 1952 to Congress, winning JFK’s old seat; majority whip of House Democrats, 1971-73; majority leader, 1973-77; advanced liberal agenda throughout his career; followed the maxim "All politics is local."
O’Reilly, John (1844-90): Poet, author, and editor; editor of the Pilot, 1870, for Catholic and Irish interests; authored volumes of poetry and the novel Moondyne (1875).
O’Sullivan, Mary (1864-1943): Reformer and labor organizer; national organizer for women of the AFL, 1892; founded the National Women’s Trade League.
Pace, Edward (1861-1938): Priest and scholar; founder and dean of Philosophy department of Catholic University of America; founding editor of Catholic Encyclopedia; early leader in experimental psychology.
Padilla, Juan de: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Palladino, Laurence, S.J. (1837-1927): Jesuit missionary, the last pioneer missionary of the Northwest; born in Italy; sent to Montana Territory, 1867; built the first church in the Helena Mission (later the first cathedral); director of diocesan schools, 1889-92; president of Gonzaga College, 1894.
Palou, Francisco: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Pariseau, Mother Mary Joseph: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Percy, Walker (1916–90): Novelist; author of The Moviegoer (1961), Love in the Ruins (1971), and The Second Coming (1980); expressed a rich understanding of change in the South.
Peter, Carl J. (1932-91): Priest and theologian; chairman of Department of Theology, Catholic University of America, 1975-77; ranked as one of CUA’s greatest scholars; served on International Theological Commission.
Peyton, Patrick (1909-92): Holy Cross priest and evangelist; established Family Rosary Crusade, 1947, to promote the rosary among families; coined the motto "The family that prays together, stays together."
Powderly, Terence (1849-1924): Labor leader and director of the Knights of Labor, a secret organization that repudiate strikes; reached his period of greatest influence from 1879-93; source of controversy in the Church.
Powers. J.F. (1917-99): Author and novelist; taught at Marquette University and University of Michigan; member of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters; notable works included Morte d’Urban (1962, winner of the National Book Award and Thormod Monsen award), Wheat That Springeth Green (1988, National Book Award and National Book Critics Circle finalist, Wethersfield Institute Award); considered one of the most prominent Catholic writers of the 1950s and 1960s.
Pulaski, Casimir (1748-79): Polish soldier during the American Revolution; joined staff of General Washington, 1777; fought in numerous battles and killed at Savannah.
Purcell, John B. (1783-1883): First archbishop of Cincinnati, 1850-83; born in Ireland; bp. of Cincinnati, 1833-50; supported the Union during the Civil War; last years marked by financial troubles.
Quigley, Martin (1890-1964): Editor and publisher; founded motion picture trade magazines; devised the Motion Picture Production Code; helped found the Legion of Decency.
Quiroga, Vasco de: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Rappe, Louis Amadeus (1801-77): First bishop of Cleveland, 1847-70; born in France; established parishes, missions, hospitals, and missions.
Ravalli, Antonio (1811-84): Italian Jesuit; missionary in far-western United States, mostly Montana, for 40 years.
Raymbaut, Charles (1602-43): French Jesuit; missionary among Indians of Canada and northern U.S.
Reedy, John L. (1925-83): Priest and editor; editor of Ave Maria, for Catholic families; columnist for Our Sunday Visitor.
Repplier, Agnes (1855-1950): Author of essays and biographies; wrote for Atlantic Monthly.
Résé, Frederic (1791-1871): First bishop of Detroit, 1833-71; born in Germany; inactive from 1841 because of ill health; remained in Europe from 1838.
Richard, Gabriel: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Riepp, Benedicta (1825-62): Benedictine nun; born in Bavaria; established first monastery of women Benedictines in North America.
Ritter, Joseph E. (1892-1967): Archbishop of St. Louis, 1946-67 and Cardinal from 1961; aux. bp. of Indianapolis, 1933-34; bp. of Indianapolis, 1934-44; first abp. Indianapolis, 1944-46; promoted national episcopal conference and Catholic charities; active at Vatican Council II.
Rockne, Knute (1888–1931): Football coach; born in Norway; head coach of Notre Dame (1918- 31); died in a plane crash.
Rosati, Joseph: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Rosecrans, William (1819-98): Union general; campaigned in West Virginia and Mississippi; defeated at the battle of Chickamauga, Georgia (1863), and relieved of duties.
Rudd, Daniel (1854-1933): Journalist and civil rights leader; founded the Ohio Star Tribune (American Catholic Tribune), 1886 for African-American Catholics; founded African-American Catholic lay congress.
Russell, Mother Mary (1829-98): Superior of the Order of Sisters of Mercy; invited to San Francisco by Abp. Joseph Alemany; founded St. Mary’s Hospital, first Catholic hospital on the west coast.
Ruth, Babe (1895-1948): Baseball player, known as "the Sultan of Swat"; pitcher for the Boston Red Sox (1915-19) and outfielder for the New York Yankees (1920-35); hit 714 home runs, played in 10 World Series, and held 54 major-league records; inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1936.
Ryan, James H. (1886-1947): First archbishop of Omaha, 1945-47; rector of the Catholic University of America, 1928-35; titular bp. of Modra, 1933-35; bp. of Omaha, 1935-45; promoter of education; supported the New Deal and policies of FDR.
Ryan, John (1869-1945): Priest, influential social reformer, and educator; the leading Catholic voice in the U.S. on social issues in the first half of the 20th century.
Ryan, Thomas (1851-1928): Financier and philanthropist; founder of the American Tobacco Company and National Bank of Commerce; donated over 20 million dollars to Catholic charities.
Sadlier, Mary (1820-1903): Novelist; born in Ireland; author of over 30 novels and books, focusing on contemporary issues; editor of The Tablet; noted Catholic philanthropist.
Seattle, Chief (1786-1866): Native American chief of the Suquamish of Puget Sound; baptized a Catholic at the age of 54; maintained excellent relations with the white settlers; his daughter, Princess Angeline, was also a Catholic.
Seelos, Francis X.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Seghers, Charles J.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Serra, Junípero, Bl.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Seton, Elizabeth: See under Saints of the Church.
Shea, John Gilmary (1826-92): Editor and the "Father of American Catholic historians"; editor and author of over 200 publications and supporter of the U.S. bishops.
Sheed, Francis "Frank" (1897-1981): Author and apologist; co-founded the influential publisher Sheed and Ward, 1933; lectured and wrote in defense of the Catholic faith.
Sheen, Fulton J. (1895-1979): Archbishop, radio and television personality, and educator; internationally famous as a preacher on radio and television; aux. bp. of New York, 1951-66; bp. of Rochester, 1966-69; titular abp. of Newport; national director of the Society for the Propagation for the Faith; perhaps the most popular and socially influential American Catholic of the 20th century.
Shehan, Lawrence J. (1898-1984): Archbishop of Baltimore, 1961-74 and Cardinal from 1965; aux. bp. of Baltimore and Washington, 1945-53; first bp. of Bridgeport, 1953-61; coad. abp. of Baltimore, Sept.-Dec., 1961; supported the civil rights movement and took part in Martin Luther King’s March on Washington, 1963; abp. during a time of deep social unrest.
Sheil, Bernard (1886-1969): Archbishop and social activist; aux. bp. of Chicago, 1928-69; titular abp. of Selge, 1959-69; formed the Catholic Youth Organization (CYO), 1931; supported organized Labor and FDR; opposed Fr. Coughlin and Sen. Joseph McCarthy.
Sheridan, Philip (1831-88) Union general; took part in the Chattanooga (1863) and Wilderness (1864) campaigns; defeated the Confederate forces at the Battle of Five Forks (1865); brilliant cavalry leader.
Shields, James (1806-79): Union general and U.S. Senator; member of the Illinois Supreme Court, 1843-45; brigadier general during Civil War; the only person to represent three states in the U.S. Senate (Illinois, Minnesota, Missouri).
Shields, Thomas (1862-1921): Priest, psychologist, and educator; professor at Catholic University of America; promoted dialogue between theology and modern science and philosophy.
Shuster, George (1894-1977): Author, editor, and educator; president of Hunter College, 1940-69.
Siuwheem, Louise (d. c. 1850): Native American, member of the Couer d’Alene tribe in Idaho; known for her zeal and care for the sick; a friend of Fr. Pierre de Smet.
Slattery, John (1851-1926): Priest and advocate for civil rights; member of the Mill Hill missions and sought to have a Mill Hill community for the U.S.; supported African American rights and vocations.
Smith, Alfred E. (1873-1944): Four-time governor of New York (1919-20, 1923-28) and presidential candidate in 1928; as governor, he was responsible for numerous reforms; the Democratic nominee for president, he was the first Roman Catholic candidate for president; defeated by Herbert Hoover, primarily because of the Catholic issue and Prohibition.
Solanus, Francis, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Sorin, Edward F.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Spalding, Catherine (d. 1858): Co-foundress of the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, Kentucky; her sisters cared for orphans, educated the poor, and eventually expanded into health care.
Spalding, John (1840-1916): First bishop of Peoria from 1877-1908; supporter of separation of Church and State; authored numerous books and articles; helped found the Catholic University of America.
Spalding, Martin (1810-72): Archbishop of Baltimore, 1864-72; perhaps the most influential Catholic apologist of the 19th century; bp. of Louisville, 1850-64; supported the Confederacy during the Civil War; promoted evangelization among the former slaves; favored papal infallibility at Vatican Council I; ranked as one of the foremost prelates in the American Church, esp. for his work in shaping and directing the immigrant influx.
Spellman, Francis J. (1889-1967): Archbishop of New York, 1939-67 and Cardinal from 1946; studies in Rome led to appointment to the Vatican Secretariat of State; arranged for publication of the anti-fascist encyclical, Non Abbiamo Bisogno, 1931 in Paris; auxiliary bp. of Boston, 1932-39; good friend of Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (the future Pope Pius XII); reorganized diocesan finances and centralized authority; Military Vicar for the Armed Forces, 1939-67; staunch anti-Communist and supporter of the Vietnam War; supported the Vatican II Declaration on Religious Liberty and modern biblical scholarship; the most influential American prelate from 1939-58.
Stritch, Samuel (1887-1958): Archbishop of Chicago, 1939-58 and Cardinal from 1946; bp. of Toledo, 1921-30; abp. of Milwaukee, 1930-39; active in the National Catholic Welfare Conference and Catholic Action; named proprefect of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, 1958; died in Rome.
Sullivan, John L. (1858–1918) Boxer; won in 1882 the bare-knuckles heavyweight championship over Paddy Ryan; called the "Great John L."; won in 1889 the last bare-knuckles title bout over Jake Kilrain; defeated, using gloves, in 1892, by James J. Corbett.
Talbot, Francis X., S.J. (1889-1953): Editor and author; editor-in-chief of America, 1936-44; founded Catholic Poetry Society of America; author of numerous books; president of Loyola College, Baltimore, 1947-51.
Taney, Roger (1777-1864): Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, 1836-64; Attorney General of the U.S., 1831-34; participated in over 300 decisions, but is remembered for the Dred Scott decision, 1857, in which he ruled that slaves and their descendants had no rights as citizens; disagreed with Lincoln over several actions during the Civil War.
Tekakwitha, Kateri: See under Saints of the Church.
Timon, John, C.M. (1797-1867): First bishop of Buffalo, 1847-67; superior of the Vincential province of the U.S., 1835-39; prefect apostolic for the Republic of Texas, 1839-47.
Todadilla, Anthony de: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Tolton, Augustus (1854-97): First African-American priest in the U.S.; escaped from slavery with his mother to Illinois and discerned a vocation; studied in Rome as no American seminary would take him; ordained, 1886; pastor in Quincy and Chicago, Illinois; encountered racism, esp. from fellow priests.
Toscanini, Arturo (1867–1957): Italian conductor; began his career as conductor of the Rio de Janeiro opera; returned to Italy and conducted the premieres of Leoncavallo’s Pagliacci (1892) and Puccini’s La Bohème (1896); later musical director at La Scala, Milan; in the U.S., conducted at the Metropolitan Opera, 1908–14, the New York Philharmonic, 1926–36, and the NBC Symphony, which was formed for him (1937–54).
Toussaint, Pierre, Venerable (1766-1853): Former slave and businessman; born into slavery in Haiti; served as a domestic servant and permitted to learn French (studied Catholic books and sermons); given his freedom in 1807; became a successful hairdresser; devout Catholic; cause opened in 1990 by Cardinal John O’Connor, declared venerable in 1997 by Pope John Paul II.
Tracy, Spencer (1900-67) Film actor; won Academy Awards as best Actor for Captains Courageous (1937) and Boys’ Town (1938); other films include Adam’s Rib (1949), The Last Hurrah (1958), and Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967).
Tunney, Gene (1898-1978): Boxer; won, 1922, the light-heavyweight title over Battling Levinsky, but lost it that same year (to Harry Greb) in his only defeat as a professional; defeated Jack Dempsey In 1926 for the heavyweight championship; retired as champion in 1928.
Turibius de Mongrovejo, St. : See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Turner, Thomas (1877-1978): Educator and civil rights leader; professor of biology at Howard University, 1913; acting dean of the School of Education at Howard University, 1914-20; worked against discrimination, esp. in the Church, through the Federated Colored Catholics (FCC).
Twelve Apostles of Mexico: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Valdivia, Luis de: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Varela, Féliz (1788-1853): Cuban patriot and scholar; promoter of Thomistic philosophy, the abolition of slavery in Cuba, and education; founded in 1825 in Philadelphia the newspaper El Habanero, the first Spanish Catholic magazine in the U.S.; vicar general of the diocese of New York from 1829; founder of The Protestant’s Abridger and Annotator, 1830, and Catholic Expositor and Literary Magazine, 1841-43, the first pastoral magazine and the first literary magazine for Catholics respectively in the U.S.
Vasques de Espiñosa, Antonio: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Verot, Augustin, S.S. (1805-76): Bishop and vocal participant at Vatican Council I; vicar apostolic of Florida, 1856-61; bp. of Savannah, 1861-70; bp. of St. Augustine, 1870-76; known as the "rebel bishop" during the Civil War for his support of the Confederacy; spoke frequently and loudly at the Vatican Council, calling for recognition of those of African descent, vindication of Galileo, and ecumenical dialogue; opposed papal infallibility, but signed the conciliar document.
Verrazano, Giovanni da (1484-1528): Explorer and navigator; searched for a westward route to Cathay and reached the coast of North America; explored Newfoundland and the east coast; killed by Caribbean Indians.
Vespucci, Amerigo (1451-1512): Explorer; journeyed with European explorers between 1497-1502; coined the phrase, "New World"; his name was used by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, in a 1507 map designating the area called "South America."
Vieira, Antonio: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Wagner, Robert (d. 1953): U.S. Senator from New York, 1926-49; born in Germany; elected to state senate, 1911; member of the commission that investigated the notorious Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire (in which 147 women died); elected to the N.Y. Supreme Court, 1918; converted to Catholicism in 1946.
Walker, James (Jimmy) (1881-1946): Flamboyant New York City Mayor, 1926-32; rose through New York City’s political world, the son of a state legislator; also dabbled in the theater and song writing; after initial success as mayor, suffered severe scandals and resigned in 1932; reconciled to the Church before his death.
Walsh, James A., M.M. (1867-1936): Cofounder (with Thomas F. Price) of Maryknoll, the first U.S. established foreign mission society and first sponsor of a U.S. foreign mission seminary; superior of Maryknoll, 1911-36; titular bp., 1933-36.
Walsh, James E., M.M. (1891-1981): Bishop, religious superior, and missionary; after ordination in 1915 was sent as one of four Maryknoll missionaries to China; vicar apostolic of Kongmoon, China, 1927-36; superior of Maryknoll, 1936-46; general secretary, Catholic Central Bureau, Shanghai, China, 1948; imprisoned by Chinese communists, 1958-70.
Walsh, Robert (1784-1859): Journalist and author; founded The American Review of History and Politics, 1811, American Register, 1817, and, with William Frye, the National Gazette and Literary Register; dedicated Federalist and patriot.
Walworth, Clarence (1820-1900): Priest and social activist; converted in 1845 and entered the Redemptorists; worked with Isaac Hecker and served for a time as a Paulist (he left in 1865 over disagreements with Hecker); promoted social justice and the temperance movement; authored numerous books and articles.
Ward, Maisie (1889-1975): Publisher, street preacher, and activist; wife of Francis Sheed, with whom she co-founded the publishing firm of Sheed and Ward; author of 27 books; supported numerous social reform organizations, including the Catholic Worker, Friendship House, and land reform in India.
Warde, Mary (1810-84): Mercy Sister; born in Ireland; entered the Sisters of Mercy and was sent to Pittsburgh; opened houses, boarding schools for girls, and eventually cared for the sick and orphans in New England, encountering much resistance from the Know-Nothings.
Weigel, Gustave, S.J. (1906-64): Jesuit priest and ecumenist; professor of theology at the Catholic University of Chile, 1937-48; professor at Woodstock College, 1949-64; lecturer and supporter of the ecumenical movement.
White, Andrew: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Whitfield, James (1770-1834): Archbishop of Baltimore, 1828-34; born in England; coadj. bishop of Baltimore, 1828.
Williams, John J. (1822-1907): First archbishop of Boston, 1875-1907; bp. of Boston, 1866-75; worked to accommodate the waves of Catholic immigrants into the archdiocese; established many new parishes and found priests to speak in a host of different languages.
Williams, Mary Lou (d. 1981): Jazz musician and composer; taught herself music and the piano; worked with many other famous Jazz musicians, including Dizzy Gillespie, Benny Goodman, and Duke Ellington; composed Jazz for sacred music; founded the Pittsburgh Jazz Festival; a devout Catholic and one of the foremost Jazz artists in the U.S,
Williams, Michael (1877-1950): Author, editor, and leading lay Catholic during and after World War I; belonged briefly to the utopian colony of Upton Sinclair; assistant director of the National Catholic War Council during WWI; founder and editor of Commonweal, a journal by and for lay Catholics, 1924-37.
Wimmer, Boniface: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Wolff, Madeleva (1877-1964): Educator, author, poet, religious, and the first woman religious to receive a doctorate from the University of California at Berkeley; president of St. Mary’s College, Notre Dame, Indiana, 1934-61, she was responsible for numerous innovations and the rise of the school to national prominence.
Wood, Abp. James F. (1813-83): First Archbishop of Philadelphia, 1875-83; convert in 1836; coadj. bp. of Philadelphia, 1857-60; bp. of Philadelphia, 1860-75.
Wright, John J. (1909-79): Cardinal from 1969 and prefect of the Congregation of the Clergy, 1969-79; aux. bp. of Boston, 1947-50; first bp. of Worcester, 1950-59; bp. of Pittsburgh, 1959-69; the first American to head a congregation in Rome with global duties.
Wynne, John, S.J. (1859-1925): Jesuit priest and author; editor of Messenger of the Sacred Heart, 1892-1909; founder of America, 1909, the foremost Jesuit journal of opinion in the U.S.; vice-postulator of the causes of the Jesuit North American Martyrs (beatified in 1925 and canonized in 1930).
X, Y, Z
Yorke, Peter (1864-1925): Priest, editor, and social activist; born in Ireland; chancellor of the archdiocese of San Francisco and editor of the archdiocesan newspaper; opposed anti-Catholicism in San Francisco; supported the Teamsters in the strike of 1901; founded the Irish newspaper, The Leader, 1902; a well-known spiritual figure in the Bay Area.
Youville, Marie Marguerite d’, St.: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
Zahm, John (1851-1921): Holy Cross priest, theologian, and scientist; professor of physics at Notre Dame, 1875-92; sought to reconcile modern science and the Catholic faith; American provincial for the Congregation of the Holy Cross; traveled with Theodore Roosevelt to South America.
Zumarraga, Juan de: See under Missionaries to the Americas.
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